New Zealand Radio Spectrum Management
All of the radio products sold by Go Wireless NZ Ltd are covered by the Radiocommunications Regulations as specified by Radio Spectrum Management (RSM). You must ensure that you use all radio equipment in a manner that meets the regulations; otherwise you may cause unnecessary interference to other users which could result in prosecution. All of the Wi-Fi devices sold by Go Wireless NZ Ltd
use Spread Spectrum and most are in the General User licensed RF bands. Go Wireless NZ Ltd is registered with New Zealand’s Radio Spectrum Management (RSM) and all active radio products sold by Go Wireless NZ Ltd are R-NZ and RCM approved (formally C-Tick) for sale in New Zealand and Australia. See here for the RSM guidelines and Wireless LAN Instructions.
The bare minimum you need to know about your responsibilities under the GURL are below:
900MHz Wireless GURL in New Zealand
915MHz to 920MHz......................1 watt (30dBm) total EIRP.
920MHz to 928MHz......................4 watt (36dBm) total EIRP.
2.4GHz Wireless GURL in New Zealand
2400 to 2483.5MHz......................4 watt (36dBm) total EIRP
5GHz Wireless GURL in New Zealand
5180 to 5250MHz.........................200mW (23dBm) total EIRP (Indoor Use Only)
5250 to 5350MHz.........................200mW (23dBm) total EIRP for Indoor Use or 1 watt (30dBm) total EIRP for Outdoor Use (DFS radar detect must be enabled)
5470 to 5725MHz.........................1 watt (30dBm) total EIRP (DFS radar detect must be enabled)
5725 to 5850MHz.........................200 watts (53dBm) total EIRP for Fixed point to point only
5725 to 5875MHz.........................4 watts (36dBm) total EIRP for Point to Multipoint
Note: You should be aware that ground weather radar, covering channels 114 (5570MHz), 118 (5590MHz), 120 (5600MHz), 122 (5610MHz), 124 (5620MHz), 126 (5630MHz) and 128 (5640MHz), operates at nine locations across New Zealand. These being Kaeo, Tamahunga, Mamaku, New Plymouth airport, Mahia, Outlook Hill (Wellington), Rakaia Trig, Blue Spur Range (Hokitika) and Invercargill Airport. If 5GHz Wi-Fi equipment is to be deployed in the vicinity of these 9 locations, it is highly recommended that these channels be avoided, as the weather radar is licenced for protection from interference. If your equipment causes any problems to these licenced services, compliance action may be taken against you.
24GHz Wireless GURL in New Zealand
24 to 24.250GHz.........................1 watt (30dBm) total EIRP (Any Modulation)
60GHz Wireless GURL in New Zealand
57 to 64GHz.........................20W (43dBm) total EIRP
57 to 64GHz.........................316kW (85dBm) total EIRP for Fixed point to point only*
64 to 66GHz.........................20W (43dBm) total EIRP (Indoor Use Only)
*Special Conditions Apply:
- Transmitter maximum peak power must not exceed –3 dBW (500 mW) and the power spectral density must not exceed –10 dBm/MHz e.i.r.p. For emission bandwidths less than 100 MHz, the transmitter peak power of –3 dBW (500 mW) must be prorated by (bandwidth (MHz) / 100 (MHz)).
- The maximum power of any emission must not exceed 55 dBW e.i.r.p., or minus 2 dB for every dB that the antenna gain is less than 51 dBi. The average power of any emission shall not exceed 52 dBW e.i.r.p., or minus 2 dB for every dB that the antenna gain is less than 51 dBi.
Why is a Static IP address needed to configure some Access Points?
Not all network devices are set to allocate IP addresses to the clients who connect to it automatically. This is normally done by a DHCP server (Dynamic Host Control Protocol) on the device and is not always enabled by default, this will mean that you will need to assign a Static IP address to your computer so you can communicate with it. A basic understanding of TCP/IP is needed to work with any network equipment.
What is an IP Address?
How do I configure a static IP Address on my computer?
Wireless Equipment Essentials
Never power on wireless equipment without antennas connected. Powering on radio equipment without an antenna connected can cause permanent damage of the radio transmitter.
Always use Coax Seal Tape. Many wireless installers forget about this vital part of their installations and end up with expensive repairs a few months later. It is very important to seal all outside connector joints to prevent moisture from entering. It is best to use a self bonding type tape as these tend to give the best seal.
Keep Coax Cable runs to a minimum. When ordering Coax Pigtails and extension cables to connect your access point to an antenna, keep the cables as short as possible for best performance. Use CA-400 for long cable runs as it has a lower loss of around 0.22dB per meter at 2.5GHz. We use Times Microwave LMR195 for shorter cables under 2 meters and this has a loss of around 0.6dB per meter at 2.5GHz. Remember to take the loss of RF connectors and coax cable into account when designing your wireless network.
Getting the most out of your Wireless Network
If you are having problems with your wireless signal there are some things to check for first:
Look for non WiFi related Interference
Look for other 2.4 GHz equipment nearby like cordless phones, bluetooth devices, microwave ovens etc. Your neighbours may also have a wireless access point on the same channel as yours. There are plenty of wireless scanning tools available (Free and Paid) for Mac (inSSIDer), Windows (inSSIDer, Acrylic Wi-Fi), and Android (WiFi Analyzer) operating systems.
Evaluate the building structure
The makeup of the building will also affect the signal, things such as metal studs in walls, concrete, concrete fibreboard walls, aluminium cladding, and foil-backed insulation in the walls or under the cladding, pipes, electrical wiring and furniture.
Other common things that can block 2.4GHz signals are tinted windows, wire mesh with holes smaller than a quarter wavelength (about 2.5cm), and wire mesh with holes up to 12.5cm. It is also a good idea to keep your access point as high as possible and away from metal objects and concrete walls as these can block and/or reflect the signal causing signal degradation.
Here are some common building materials with their average attenuation:
Plasterboard wall: 3dB
Glass wall with metal frame: 6dB
Block wall: 4dB
Office window: 3dB
Metal door: 6dB
Metal door in brick wall: 12.4dB
Metageek also have an excellent Training and Education section on their website to help with WiFi design and troubleshooting.
Radio Frequency Line of Sight (RF LOS)
Radio frequency LOS is very important when designing point to point links, as RF LOS is not the same as visual LOS. The Fresnel Zone is an important part of the RF link because it defines an area around the LOS that can introduce RF signal interference if blocked. Objects in the Fresnel Zone such as trees, hilltops, and buildings can diffract, reflect or absorb signal away from the receiver, changing the RF LOS. These objects can cause degradation or complete signal loss. To have a viable RF link 60% of the Fresnel Zone must be free of obstructions. The Fresnel Zone is at its widest in the middle of the link.
Most large wireless manufacturers provide Link Calculation tools for their equipment that can assist with the link planning process. These link calculation tools can give you an idea whether your link will be obstructed and what equipment you need to give you the best signal and performance. One common misconception is that using a high gain directional antenna can "blast" through trees, buildings and other objects - this almost never works. A directional antenna that can transmit 30km in free space won't even go 1km if the path is obstructed.
Note: It is important when using antennas for longer distance communications that you have similar strength radios and similar gain antennas at each end. If you don't you run the risk of being able to receive signal, but not transmit back for two way communication. Your link will only be as good as the weakest end. It is no good putting a 15dbi omni on your roof and trying to use a laptop to communicate to it 2km away, as you will be able to receive signal from it, but the laptop will not be able to transmit enough signal back.
Good Signal can't be Guaranteed
Even when all the above precautions are taken into account, no one can guarantee a good link, as there are many more factors that could cause problems. Go Wireless NZ sells equipment in good faith and can only accept returns due to faulty equipment as per the warranty.